Virtual - Interactive Expeditions
Black Carbon measurements during the 2013 Flight to the North Pole
We have demonstrated during the GLWF2012 round-the-world campaign that a lightweight aircraft can provide valuable information on BC concentrations, their regional heterogeneity and vertical profiles with a minor payload and for a fraction of the cos
Atmospheric Conditions and Arctic Climate
Aerosols are small, solid, particles like dust, smoke, and smog which are suspended in the air. Aerosols are generated by a variety of natural and man-made sources such as fossil fuel combustion, forest fires, and dust storms. Because aerosols have t
Agricultural Emissions of Greenhouse Gases
This project aims to estimate emissions of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from NZ’s pastoral farming systems, and to estimate the effectiveness of different approaches to reducing them
Tools for Assessing Exposure to Land Transport Emissions
This is an 18-month research project funded by New Zealand Transport Agency, developing two core models for assessing the exposure of populations to air pollution arising from vehicle tailpipe emissions.
SAGE - SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment
Our understanding of the climate feedback processes which are driven by the ocean is still incomplete. This makes it harder to predict the future state of the climate. While we understand in theory how gases move in and out of the ocean, there haven\
Atmospheric Ozone, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Stratospheric Change
New Zealanders have the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, and this is due partly due to the extreme levels of summertime UV we experience. The amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface is controlled by the amount of ozone in
In New Zealand, poor air quality is estimated to cause 1175 premature deaths and cost over $4 billion each year. Poor air quality can damage both our cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Different types of pollutants have different effects on our
Antarctic Ozone
This research program commenced in 2002. Although it is relatively new, our research has revealed a number of key findings to date including. The year when the ozone layer over Antarctica returns to 1980 conditions is only marginally affected by diff
Chemistry-climate modeling
This research project focuses on modeling atmospheric chemistry and climate from the surface to the top of the stratosphere, using sophisticated chemistry-climate models. The research areas include: Anthropogenic ozone depletion, the ozone hole, and
Total Carbon Column Observing Network
major challenge in climate science is to understand the fate of the approximately 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide emitted each year as a result of human activities (such as motor vehicles, factories, and deforestation). Climate scientists need to a
Greenhouse Gases and Climate Sensitivity - Insights from Ice Cores
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, with natural sources such as wetlands and permafrost which release more methane in warmer and wetter climates. By analysing air trapped in ancient ice we can see how carbon sinks responded to warming periods in t
Arctic Ground Squirrel Studies 2014
In the Arctic, bright summers and dark winters are a fact of life and can lead humans to rely on clocks and routines to tell them when to eat or sleep, but how do animals function under these conditions? Circadian rhythms refer to the \"internal body
Climate Change and Pollinators in the Arctic
The research focuses on the interactions between plants and their pollinators, which are animals that aid in plant reproduction through transporting pollen. The aim is to understand how changes in temperature and precipitation may influence plant-pol
Arctic Sunlight and Microbial Interactions 2014
Tremendous stores of organic carbon frozen in permafrost soils have the potential to greatly increase the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Permafrost soils may thaw sporadically and melting ground ice can cause land-surface sinking called \"thermo
Microbial Changes in Arctic Freshwater
Microbial diversity has recently been found to show a pattern of organization at various scales. The research team attempts to answer three basic questions about microbial diversity and dispersal, focused on the long-term aspects of dispersal events
Microbialites In Lake Joyce Antarctica
The oldest fossil life on Earth consists of stromatolites, which are the remains of complicated communities of bacteria captured in rock. On modern Earth, similar communities still grow in places that are too harsh for worms, snails, and other grazin
Soil Ecology in Antarctic Dry Valleys
It\'s hard to imagine that anything could live in the cold, dry soils of Antarctica. Early investigations of the soil bacterial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valley found only a handful of bacteria, leading to the conclusion that these soils were es
Carbon Balance in Warming and Drying Tundra 2013
The carbon cycle is the means by which carbon is moved between the world\'s soils, oceans, atmosphere, and living organisms. Northern tundra ecosystems play a key role in the carbon cycle because the cold, moist, and frozen soils trap organic materia
Reconstructing the Past Climate of Central Alaska
The goal of the team\'s research is to develop a past climate and precipitation record of Central Alaska over the past 1000 years. In order to accomplish this task, the team will be extracting and analyzing a series of three ice cores from an ice div
Ecosystem Study of the Chukchi Shoal
The northern Chukchi Shelf receives large inputs of organic matter from the highly productive shelf regions of the North Pacific and from local sources of primary production, including algae in the ice and sediment and phytoplankton in the water colu
Seafloor Organisms and Changing Ocean Conditions in Antarctic
This project studies the effects of rising ocean acidification and temperatures on seafloor dwelling animals in the shallow waters of Antarctica. Carbon moves around the earth, between land, atmosphere, and water in the carbon cycle. The ocean absorb
Solar Radiation on the Greenland Icesheet
Solar radiation is the major energy source that drives our climate and supports life on earth. In this project, the research team hopes to gain a better understanding of the solar radiation reflected back into space and absorbed by our planet, also k
Microorganisms in Antarctic Glacier Ice
Are microorganisms metabolically active in glacier ice? To address this exciting question, the research team will travel to the McMurdo Dry Valleys-one of the harshest environments on Earth-to study the biology, geology, and chemistry of basal ice-th
Cavers Discover Southeast Asia’s Longest Lava Tube
A dozen lava tubes, including one now considered to be the longest in Southeast Asia, have recently been discovered in Vietnam. In late February, a group of cavers from Germany’s Speläoclub Berlin departed on an expedition to search for caves in t
Cave Divers Extend Sweden’s Longest Underwater Cave
A cave diving expedition earlier this month in Sweden’s Bjurälven Nature Reserve has further increased the length of Sweden’s longest underwater cave. Located in Jämtland mountains in northern Sweden, Bjurälven Nature Reserve is Scandinavia’
Sistema Huautla Becomes Deepest Cave in the Western Hemisphere
Cavers on an expedition to Sistema Huautla in southern Mexico have recently announced that they have reached a new depth of 1,545 meters (5,069 feet), once again making Sistema Huautla the deepest cave in the western hemisphere. Located in Sierra Maz
Croatian Cave Expedition Visits Merapoh, Malaysia
This past September, nine cavers from Croatia (from SOŽ – Speleološki odsjek HPD Željeznièar and SOV – Speleološki odsjek PDS Velebit), plus myself (based in Kuala Lumpur) joined up with Malaysians from the Merapoh Nature Guides Association
Peru Expedition Rewrites List of the World’s Highest Caves
A recent expedition to Peru has completely re-written the list of the world’s highest caves.The six-week long adventure, which began in late September, saw an international team of 10 highly experienced cavers come together from Canada, Australia,
New Connection Results in Slovenia’s Longest Cave
Earlier this week cavers taking part in the 2012 Sledi Vetra expedition successfully connected two caves to form the longest cave in Slovenia. Measuring in at 24.9 kilometers (15.4 miles) long and 975 meters (3199 feet) deep, the Migovec System surpa
Belize Deep Cave Exploration & Archaeological Project
An archeological expedition to the jungle of Belize, exploring and surveying a cave over 60 meters (200 feet) deep in search of fossils and Mayan artifacts
World’s Deepest Cave Becomes Slightly Deeper
An expedition inside Krubera-Voronja, the world’s deepest cave, has increased the depth by another 5 meters (16 feet). According to initial reports, on August 10th Ukrainian cave diver, Gennady Samokhin, extended the depth to -2196 meters (-7205 fe
Heat Flow Studies
The USGS conducts research on the thermal regime of the Earth’s crust, with a current focus on geothermal energy resources, heat and fluid transport in hydrothermal systems, thermal controls on the seismogenic properties of faults, hydrologic proce
Earthquake Early Warning System
Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) uses existing seismic networks to detect moderate to large earthquakes very rapidly so that a warning can be sent before destructive seismic waves arrive to locations outside the area where the earthquake begins. These
Paleoseismology in the San Francisco Bay Area
We are currently exhuming several faults in the San Francisco Bay region in search of their ancient earthquake (paleoseismic) histories. The process involves digging a trench across (or along side) the fault in order to map, date and interpret distur
Intermountain West Region
The differential motion between the North American, Pacific, and Juan de Fuca plates is causing deformation throughout most of western North America. The majority of this deformation is occurring close to the plate boundaries in California and off th
The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment
The Parkfield Experiment is a comprehensive, long-term earthquake research project on the San Andreas fault. Led by the USGS and the State of California, the experiment\\\'s purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes - what actually h
Earthquake Hazards
USGS scientific investigations focus on improving our understanding of the causes and effects of Pacific Northwest earthquakes, summarized below. In almost all cases a multi-disciplinary approach is required because near-surface evidence may be hidde
Understanding Coastal Change
Coastal change poses potential risk to coastal communities across the nation. Powerful storms generate surge, waves and currents that can move large amounts of sediment, destroy roads, buildings and other critical infrastructure as well as alter natu
Geologic Hazards and Catastrophic Events
Ocean hazard events like tsunamis, triggered by earthquakes and landslides, storm surges associated with hurricanes and extreme storms, oil and gas spills, floods and associated watershed contaminants, affect the health and safety of our Nation\'s oc
Coastal and Marine Ecosystem Science
Maintaining healthy and sustainable coastal and marine ecosystems relies on scientific understanding of how these areas function across landscape scales. Ecosystem-scale science addresses understanding important linkages between watersheds, estuaries
Landslide Hazards of Seattle, WA, and vicinity
When wet winter weather sets in, many residents of the Puget Sound area begin to worry about landslides. Landslides that occur on bluffs and hillsides of communities surrounding Puget Sound, Washington, pose a serious hazard to people, property, util
Landslides in the West Hills of Portland
Data collection at this site supports research on hydrologic factors that control landslide initiation. In many landslide-prone hillsides, infiltration of water from rainfall or snowmelt increases ground-water pressures. These elevated pressures can,
Landslides in the Oregon Coast Range
Data collection at this site supports research on hydrologic factors that control landslide initiation. In many landslide-prone hillsides, infiltration of water from rainfall or snowmelt increases ground-water pressures. These elevated pressures can,
Volcano Expedition from the field in Costa Rica
The Earth\'s surface comprises a number of tectonic plates that are in continuous motion relative to one another. The plates diverge or are pulled apart at spreading centers allowing new material to well up from the mantle and to form oceanic crust.
Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua
Working alongside the researchers, you’ll trace the path and ultimate fate of the gases emitted by the volcano, starting from the volcano’s magma and moving through the gas plume into the soil, water, and ultimately, plants and animals. Knowledge
Geology and the Shaping of the American Southwest
The Rio Grande Rift runs north from Mexico into central Colorado, and is made up of a series of basins that are bounded by faults. Over the past 25 million years, these basins developed as tectonic stresses pulled the continent apart and filled the b
Rediscovering Ross Island: The 2012 Expedition to Understand the Geologic Origin of Ross Island, Antarctica
Using funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), we are conducting a field and laboratory based study to examine the hypothesis that volcanism on Ross Island is the surface expression of a deep mantle upwelling in the form of a mantle plume
Geologic Climate Research in Siberia
An international team of researchers from the United States, Germany, Russia, and Austria will be traveling to northeast Russia to conduct a large-scale scientific drilling project in Lake E\'gygytgyn (pronounced el\'geegitgin), a crater lake created
The Future of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
Polar ice experts once thought Antarctica\'s ice sheets were mostly immune to climate change. Research findings of the past decade have started to melt away their confidence. Satellites have revealed that the ice sheets are thinning and their glacial
Mount Kenya Summit
This expedition aims to climb Mount Kenya via the McKinders Route on the South East Face of Nelion, crossing the \"Gates of Mist\" to the true summit of Mt Kenya - Batian (5,199m). The route on Nelion has HS/VS standard climbing and is about 19 pitch
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