PUBLIC HEALTH AND BASIC URBAN SERVICES IN THE SLUMS OF DELHI, INDIA: HAND-OUT OR HAND-UP?
This expedition addressed the relationship between poor health and poor enviroment in the slum areas of Delhi, India. The aim was to learn about the problems which contributed to the epidemics of plague in 1994 and cholera in 1988. By direct survey and interviews with 21 slum communities, and consultation with government various aspects health provision and awareness, as well as slum development programmes, were documanted and assessed. The main health problem identified was poor environmental maintenance and poor upkeep of those basic urban services which had already been provided. Education, motivation and the degree of active community involement were found to be crucial factors in the sucess of development programmes. To help people resolve the many problems encountered in their poverty trap, a "hand-up" was far more effective and sustainable the a short-term "hand-out".